ocaml-base-compiler

Official release 4.14.0
back to documentation root
Legend:
Library
Module
Module type
Parameter
Class
Class type
Library stdlib
Module Stdlib

Exceptions

val raise : exn -> 'a

Raise the given exception value

val raise_notrace : exn -> 'a

A faster version raise which does not record the backtrace.

  • since 4.02.0
val invalid_arg : string -> 'a

Raise exception Invalid_argument with the given string.

val failwith : string -> 'a

Raise exception Failure with the given string.

exception Exit

The Exit exception is not raised by any library function. It is provided for use in your programs.

exception Match_failure of string * int * int

Exception raised when none of the cases of a pattern-matching apply. The arguments are the location of the match keyword in the source code (file name, line number, column number).

exception Assert_failure of string * int * int

Exception raised when an assertion fails. The arguments are the location of the assert keyword in the source code (file name, line number, column number).

exception Invalid_argument of string

Exception raised by library functions to signal that the given arguments do not make sense. The string gives some information to the programmer. As a general rule, this exception should not be caught, it denotes a programming error and the code should be modified not to trigger it.

exception Failure of string

Exception raised by library functions to signal that they are undefined on the given arguments. The string is meant to give some information to the programmer; you must not pattern match on the string literal because it may change in future versions (use Failure _ instead).

exception Not_found

Exception raised by search functions when the desired object could not be found.

exception Out_of_memory

Exception raised by the garbage collector when there is insufficient memory to complete the computation. (Not reliable for allocations on the minor heap.)

exception Stack_overflow

Exception raised by the bytecode interpreter when the evaluation stack reaches its maximal size. This often indicates infinite or excessively deep recursion in the user's program.

Before 4.10, it was not fully implemented by the native-code compiler.

exception Sys_error of string

Exception raised by the input/output functions to report an operating system error. The string is meant to give some information to the programmer; you must not pattern match on the string literal because it may change in future versions (use Sys_error _ instead).

exception End_of_file

Exception raised by input functions to signal that the end of file has been reached.

exception Division_by_zero

Exception raised by integer division and remainder operations when their second argument is zero.

exception Sys_blocked_io

A special case of Sys_error raised when no I/O is possible on a non-blocking I/O channel.

exception Undefined_recursive_module of string * int * int

Exception raised when an ill-founded recursive module definition is evaluated. The arguments are the location of the definition in the source code (file name, line number, column number).

Comparisons

val (=) : 'a -> 'a -> bool

e1 = e2 tests for structural equality of e1 and e2. Mutable structures (e.g. references and arrays) are equal if and only if their current contents are structurally equal, even if the two mutable objects are not the same physical object. Equality between functional values raises Invalid_argument. Equality between cyclic data structures may not terminate. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (<>) : 'a -> 'a -> bool

Negation of Stdlib.(=). Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (<) : 'a -> 'a -> bool

See Stdlib.(>=). Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (>) : 'a -> 'a -> bool

See Stdlib.(>=). Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (<=) : 'a -> 'a -> bool

See Stdlib.(>=). Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (>=) : 'a -> 'a -> bool

Structural ordering functions. These functions coincide with the usual orderings over integers, characters, strings, byte sequences and floating-point numbers, and extend them to a total ordering over all types. The ordering is compatible with ( = ). As in the case of ( = ), mutable structures are compared by contents. Comparison between functional values raises Invalid_argument. Comparison between cyclic structures may not terminate. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val compare : 'a -> 'a -> int

compare x y returns 0 if x is equal to y, a negative integer if x is less than y, and a positive integer if x is greater than y. The ordering implemented by compare is compatible with the comparison predicates =, < and > defined above, with one difference on the treatment of the float value Stdlib.nan. Namely, the comparison predicates treat nan as different from any other float value, including itself; while compare treats nan as equal to itself and less than any other float value. This treatment of nan ensures that compare defines a total ordering relation.

compare applied to functional values may raise Invalid_argument. compare applied to cyclic structures may not terminate.

The compare function can be used as the comparison function required by the Set.Make and Map.Make functors, as well as the List.sort and Array.sort functions.

val min : 'a -> 'a -> 'a

Return the smaller of the two arguments. The result is unspecified if one of the arguments contains the float value nan.

val max : 'a -> 'a -> 'a

Return the greater of the two arguments. The result is unspecified if one of the arguments contains the float value nan.

val (==) : 'a -> 'a -> bool

e1 == e2 tests for physical equality of e1 and e2. On mutable types such as references, arrays, byte sequences, records with mutable fields and objects with mutable instance variables, e1 == e2 is true if and only if physical modification of e1 also affects e2. On non-mutable types, the behavior of ( == ) is implementation-dependent; however, it is guaranteed that e1 == e2 implies compare e1 e2 = 0. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (!=) : 'a -> 'a -> bool

Negation of Stdlib.(==). Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

Boolean operations

val not : bool -> bool

The boolean negation.

val (&&) : bool -> bool -> bool

The boolean 'and'. Evaluation is sequential, left-to-right: in e1 && e2, e1 is evaluated first, and if it returns false, e2 is not evaluated at all. Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (&) : bool -> bool -> bool
  • deprecated

    Stdlib.(&&) should be used instead. Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (||) : bool -> bool -> bool

The boolean 'or'. Evaluation is sequential, left-to-right: in e1 || e2, e1 is evaluated first, and if it returns true, e2 is not evaluated at all. Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val or : bool -> bool -> bool
  • deprecated

    Stdlib.(||) should be used instead. Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

Debugging

val __LOC__ : string

__LOC__ returns the location at which this expression appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler, with the standard error format of OCaml: "File %S, line %d, characters %d-%d".

  • since 4.02.0
val __FILE__ : string

__FILE__ returns the name of the file currently being parsed by the compiler.

  • since 4.02.0
val __LINE__ : int

__LINE__ returns the line number at which this expression appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler.

  • since 4.02.0
val __MODULE__ : string

__MODULE__ returns the module name of the file being parsed by the compiler.

  • since 4.02.0
val __POS__ : string * int * int * int

__POS__ returns a tuple (file,lnum,cnum,enum), corresponding to the location at which this expression appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler. file is the current filename, lnum the line number, cnum the character position in the line and enum the last character position in the line.

  • since 4.02.0
val __FUNCTION__ : string

__FUNCTION__ returns the name of the current function or method, including any enclosing modules or classes.

  • since 4.12.0
val __LOC_OF__ : 'a -> string * 'a

__LOC_OF__ expr returns a pair (loc, expr) where loc is the location of expr in the file currently being parsed by the compiler, with the standard error format of OCaml: "File %S, line %d, characters %d-%d".

  • since 4.02.0
val __LINE_OF__ : 'a -> int * 'a

__LINE_OF__ expr returns a pair (line, expr), where line is the line number at which the expression expr appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler.

  • since 4.02.0
val __POS_OF__ : 'a -> (string * int * int * int) * 'a

__POS_OF__ expr returns a pair (loc,expr), where loc is a tuple (file,lnum,cnum,enum) corresponding to the location at which the expression expr appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler. file is the current filename, lnum the line number, cnum the character position in the line and enum the last character position in the line.

  • since 4.02.0

Composition operators

val (|>) : 'a -> ( 'a -> 'b ) -> 'b

Reverse-application operator: x |> f |> g is exactly equivalent to g (f (x)). Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

  • since 4.01
val (@@) : ( 'a -> 'b ) -> 'a -> 'b

Application operator: g @@ f @@ x is exactly equivalent to g (f (x)). Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

  • since 4.01

Integer arithmetic

Integers are Sys.int_size bits wide. All operations are taken modulo 2Sys.int_size. They do not fail on overflow.

val (~-) : int -> int

Unary negation. You can also write - e instead of ~- e. Unary operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (~+) : int -> int

Unary addition. You can also write + e instead of ~+ e. Unary operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

  • since 3.12.0
val succ : int -> int

succ x is x + 1.

val pred : int -> int

pred x is x - 1.

val (+) : int -> int -> int

Integer addition. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (-) : int -> int -> int

Integer subtraction. Left-associative operator, , see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (*) : int -> int -> int

Integer multiplication. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (/) : int -> int -> int

Integer division. Integer division rounds the real quotient of its arguments towards zero. More precisely, if x >= 0 and y > 0, x / y is the greatest integer less than or equal to the real quotient of x by y. Moreover, (- x) / y = x / (- y) = - (x / y). Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

  • raises Division_by_zero

    if the second argument is 0.

val (mod) : int -> int -> int

Integer remainder. If y is not zero, the result of x mod y satisfies the following properties: x = (x / y) * y + x mod y and abs(x mod y) <= abs(y) - 1. If y = 0, x mod y raises Division_by_zero. Note that x mod y is negative only if x < 0. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

  • raises Division_by_zero

    if y is zero.

val abs : int -> int

Return the absolute value of the argument. Note that this may be negative if the argument is min_int.

val max_int : int

The greatest representable integer.

val min_int : int

The smallest representable integer.

Bitwise operations

val (land) : int -> int -> int

Bitwise logical and. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (lor) : int -> int -> int

Bitwise logical or. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (lxor) : int -> int -> int

Bitwise logical exclusive or. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val lnot : int -> int

Bitwise logical negation.

val (lsl) : int -> int -> int

n lsl m shifts n to the left by m bits. The result is unspecified if m < 0 or m > Sys.int_size. Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (lsr) : int -> int -> int

n lsr m shifts n to the right by m bits. This is a logical shift: zeroes are inserted regardless of the sign of n. The result is unspecified if m < 0 or m > Sys.int_size. Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (asr) : int -> int -> int

n asr m shifts n to the right by m bits. This is an arithmetic shift: the sign bit of n is replicated. The result is unspecified if m < 0 or m > Sys.int_size. Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

Floating-point arithmetic

OCaml's floating-point numbers follow the IEEE 754 standard, using double precision (64 bits) numbers. Floating-point operations never raise an exception on overflow, underflow, division by zero, etc. Instead, special IEEE numbers are returned as appropriate, such as infinity for 1.0 /. 0.0, neg_infinity for -1.0 /. 0.0, and nan ('not a number') for 0.0 /. 0.0. These special numbers then propagate through floating-point computations as expected: for instance, 1.0 /. infinity is 0.0, basic arithmetic operations (+., -., *., /.) with nan as an argument return nan, ...

val (~-.) : float -> float

Unary negation. You can also write -. e instead of ~-. e. Unary operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (~+.) : float -> float

Unary addition. You can also write +. e instead of ~+. e. Unary operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

  • since 3.12.0
val (+.) : float -> float -> float

Floating-point addition. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (-.) : float -> float -> float

Floating-point subtraction. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (*.) : float -> float -> float

Floating-point multiplication. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (/.) : float -> float -> float

Floating-point division. Left-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val (**) : float -> float -> float

Exponentiation. Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

val sqrt : float -> float

Square root.

val exp : float -> float

Exponential.

val log : float -> float

Natural logarithm.

val log10 : float -> float

Base 10 logarithm.

val expm1 : float -> float

expm1 x computes exp x -. 1.0, giving numerically-accurate results even if x is close to 0.0.

  • since 3.12.0
val log1p : float -> float

log1p x computes log(1.0 +. x) (natural logarithm), giving numerically-accurate results even if x is close to 0.0.

  • since 3.12.0
val cos : float -> float

Cosine. Argument is in radians.

val sin : float -> float

Sine. Argument is in radians.

val tan : float -> float

Tangent. Argument is in radians.

val acos : float -> float

Arc cosine. The argument must fall within the range [-1.0, 1.0]. Result is in radians and is between 0.0 and pi.

val asin : float -> float

Arc sine. The argument must fall within the range [-1.0, 1.0]. Result is in radians and is between -pi/2 and pi/2.

val atan : float -> float

Arc tangent. Result is in radians and is between -pi/2 and pi/2.

val atan2 : float -> float -> float

atan2 y x returns the arc tangent of y /. x. The signs of x and y are used to determine the quadrant of the result. Result is in radians and is between -pi and pi.

val hypot : float -> float -> float

hypot x y returns sqrt(x *. x + y *. y), that is, the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle with sides of length x and y, or, equivalently, the distance of the point (x,y) to origin. If one of x or y is infinite, returns infinity even if the other is nan.

  • since 4.00.0
val cosh : float -> float

Hyperbolic cosine. Argument is in radians.

val sinh : float -> float

Hyperbolic sine. Argument is in radians.

val tanh : float -> float

Hyperbolic tangent. Argument is in radians.

val acosh : float -> float

Hyperbolic arc cosine. The argument must fall within the range [1.0, inf]. Result is in radians and is between 0.0 and inf.

  • since 4.13.0
val asinh : float -> float

Hyperbolic arc sine. The argument and result range over the entire real line. Result is in radians.

  • since 4.13.0
val atanh : float -> float

Hyperbolic arc tangent. The argument must fall within the range [-1.0, 1.0]. Result is in radians and ranges over the entire real line.

  • since 4.13.0
val ceil : float -> float

Round above to an integer value. ceil f returns the least integer value greater than or equal to f. The result is returned as a float.

val floor : float -> float

Round below to an integer value. floor f returns the greatest integer value less than or equal to f. The result is returned as a float.

val abs_float : float -> float

abs_float f returns the absolute value of f.

val copysign : float -> float -> float

copysign x y returns a float whose absolute value is that of x and whose sign is that of y. If x is nan, returns nan. If y is nan, returns either x or -. x, but it is not specified which.

  • since 4.00.0
val mod_float : float -> float -> float

mod_float a b returns the remainder of a with respect to b. The returned value is a -. n *. b, where n is the quotient a /. b rounded towards zero to an integer.

val frexp : float -> float * int

frexp f returns the pair of the significant and the exponent of f. When f is zero, the significant x and the exponent n of f are equal to zero. When f is non-zero, they are defined by f = x *. 2 ** n and 0.5 <= x < 1.0.

val ldexp : float -> int -> float

ldexp x n returns x *. 2 ** n.

val modf : float -> float * float

modf f returns the pair of the fractional and integral part of f.

val float : int -> float
val float_of_int : int -> float

Convert an integer to floating-point.

val truncate : float -> int
val int_of_float : float -> int

Truncate the given floating-point number to an integer. The result is unspecified if the argument is nan or falls outside the range of representable integers.

val infinity : float

Positive infinity.

val neg_infinity : float

Negative infinity.

val nan : float

A special floating-point value denoting the result of an undefined operation such as 0.0 /. 0.0. Stands for 'not a number'. Any floating-point operation with nan as argument returns nan as result. As for floating-point comparisons, =, <, <=, > and >= return false and <> returns true if one or both of their arguments is nan.

val max_float : float

The largest positive finite value of type float.

val min_float : float

The smallest positive, non-zero, non-denormalized value of type float.

val epsilon_float : float

The difference between 1.0 and the smallest exactly representable floating-point number greater than 1.0.

type fpclass =
| FP_normal(*

Normal number, none of the below

*)
| FP_subnormal(*

Number very close to 0.0, has reduced precision

*)
| FP_zero(*

Number is 0.0 or -0.0

*)
| FP_infinite(*

Number is positive or negative infinity

*)
| FP_nan(*

Not a number: result of an undefined operation

*)

The five classes of floating-point numbers, as determined by the Stdlib.classify_float function.

val classify_float : float -> fpclass

Return the class of the given floating-point number: normal, subnormal, zero, infinite, or not a number.

String operations

More string operations are provided in module String.

val (^) : string -> string -> string

String concatenation. Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

  • raises Invalid_argument

    if the result is longer then than Sys.max_string_length bytes.

Character operations

More character operations are provided in module Char.

val int_of_char : char -> int

Return the ASCII code of the argument.

val char_of_int : int -> char

Return the character with the given ASCII code.

  • raises Invalid_argument

    if the argument is outside the range 0--255.

Unit operations

val ignore : 'a -> unit

Discard the value of its argument and return (). For instance, ignore(f x) discards the result of the side-effecting function f. It is equivalent to f x; (), except that the latter may generate a compiler warning; writing ignore(f x) instead avoids the warning.

String conversion functions

val string_of_bool : bool -> string

Return the string representation of a boolean. As the returned values may be shared, the user should not modify them directly.

val bool_of_string_opt : string -> bool option

Convert the given string to a boolean.

Return None if the string is not "true" or "false".

  • since 4.05
val bool_of_string : string -> bool

Same as Stdlib.bool_of_string_opt, but raise Invalid_argument "bool_of_string" instead of returning None.

val string_of_int : int -> string

Return the string representation of an integer, in decimal.

val int_of_string_opt : string -> int option

Convert the given string to an integer. The string is read in decimal (by default, or if the string begins with 0u), in hexadecimal (if it begins with 0x or 0X), in octal (if it begins with 0o or 0O), or in binary (if it begins with 0b or 0B).

The 0u prefix reads the input as an unsigned integer in the range [0, 2*max_int+1]. If the input exceeds max_int it is converted to the signed integer min_int + input - max_int - 1.

The _ (underscore) character can appear anywhere in the string and is ignored.

Return None if the given string is not a valid representation of an integer, or if the integer represented exceeds the range of integers representable in type int.

  • since 4.05
val int_of_string : string -> int

Same as Stdlib.int_of_string_opt, but raise Failure "int_of_string" instead of returning None.

val string_of_float : float -> string

Return the string representation of a floating-point number.

val float_of_string_opt : string -> float option

Convert the given string to a float. The string is read in decimal (by default) or in hexadecimal (marked by 0x or 0X).

The format of decimal floating-point numbers is [-] dd.ddd (e|E) [+|-] dd , where d stands for a decimal digit.

The format of hexadecimal floating-point numbers is [-] 0(x|X) hh.hhh (p|P) [+|-] dd , where h stands for an hexadecimal digit and d for a decimal digit.

In both cases, at least one of the integer and fractional parts must be given; the exponent part is optional.

The _ (underscore) character can appear anywhere in the string and is ignored.

Depending on the execution platforms, other representations of floating-point numbers can be accepted, but should not be relied upon.

Return None if the given string is not a valid representation of a float.

  • since 4.05
val float_of_string : string -> float

Same as Stdlib.float_of_string_opt, but raise Failure "float_of_string" instead of returning None.

Pair operations

val fst : ('a * 'b) -> 'a

Return the first component of a pair.

val snd : ('a * 'b) -> 'b

Return the second component of a pair.

List operations

More list operations are provided in module List.

val (@) : 'a list -> 'a list -> 'a list

List concatenation. Not tail-recursive (length of the first argument). Right-associative operator, see Ocaml_operators for more information.

Input/output

Note: all input/output functions can raise Sys_error when the system calls they invoke fail.

type in_channel

The type of input channel.

type out_channel

The type of output channel.

val stdin : in_channel

The standard input for the process.

val stdout : out_channel

The standard output for the process.

val stderr : out_channel

The standard error output for the process.

Output functions on standard output

val print_char : char -> unit

Print a character on standard output.

val print_string : string -> unit

Print a string on standard output.

val print_bytes : bytes -> unit

Print a byte sequence on standard output.

  • since 4.02.0
val print_int : int -> unit

Print an integer, in decimal, on standard output.

val print_float : float -> unit

Print a floating-point number, in decimal, on standard output.

val print_endline : string -> unit

Print a string, followed by a newline character, on standard output and flush standard output.

val print_newline : unit -> unit

Print a newline character on standard output, and flush standard output. This can be used to simulate line buffering of standard output.

Output functions on standard error

val prerr_char : char -> unit

Print a character on standard error.

val prerr_string : string -> unit

Print a string on standard error.

val prerr_bytes : bytes -> unit

Print a byte sequence on standard error.

  • since 4.02.0
val prerr_int : int -> unit

Print an integer, in decimal, on standard error.

val prerr_float : float -> unit

Print a floating-point number, in decimal, on standard error.

val prerr_endline : string -> unit

Print a string, followed by a newline character on standard error and flush standard error.

val prerr_newline : unit -> unit

Print a newline character on standard error, and flush standard error.

Input functions on standard input

val read_line : unit -> string

Flush standard output, then read characters from standard input until a newline character is encountered.

Return the string of all characters read, without the newline character at the end.

  • raises End_of_file

    if the end of the file is reached at the beginning of line.

val read_int_opt : unit -> int option

Flush standard output, then read one line from standard input and convert it to an integer.

Return None if the line read is not a valid representation of an integer.

  • since 4.05
val read_int : unit -> int

Same as Stdlib.read_int_opt, but raise Failure "int_of_string" instead of returning None.

val read_float_opt : unit -> float option

Flush standard output, then read one line from standard input and convert it to a floating-point number.

Return None if the line read is not a valid representation of a floating-point number.

  • since 4.05.0
val read_float : unit -> float

Same as Stdlib.read_float_opt, but raise Failure "float_of_string" instead of returning None.

General output functions

type open_flag =
| Open_rdonly(*

open for reading.

*)
| Open_wronly(*

open for writing.

*)
| Open_append(*

open for appending: always