```
include module type of Stdlib
with module List := List
and module ListLabels := ListLabels
and module StdLabels := StdLabels
and module Pervasives := Pervasives
and module Int := Int
```

## Exceptions

Raise the given exception value

`val raise_notrace : exn -> 'a`

A faster version `raise`

which does not record the backtrace.

`val invalid_arg : string -> 'a`

Raise exception `Invalid_argument`

with the given string.

`val failwith : string -> 'a`

Raise exception `Failure`

with the given string.

The `Exit`

exception is not raised by any library function. It is provided for use in your programs.

`exception Match_failure of string * int * int`

Exception raised when none of the cases of a pattern-matching apply. The arguments are the location of the match keyword in the source code (file name, line number, column number).

`exception Assert_failure of string * int * int`

Exception raised when an assertion fails. The arguments are the location of the assert keyword in the source code (file name, line number, column number).

`exception Invalid_argument of string`

Exception raised by library functions to signal that the given arguments do not make sense. The string gives some information to the programmer. As a general rule, this exception should not be caught, it denotes a programming error and the code should be modified not to trigger it.

`exception Failure of string`

Exception raised by library functions to signal that they are undefined on the given arguments. The string is meant to give some information to the programmer; you must not pattern match on the string literal because it may change in future versions (use Failure _ instead).

Exception raised by search functions when the desired object could not be found.

Exception raised by the garbage collector when there is insufficient memory to complete the computation. (Not reliable for allocations on the minor heap.)

Exception raised by the bytecode interpreter when the evaluation stack reaches its maximal size. This often indicates infinite or excessively deep recursion in the user's program.

Before 4.10, it was not fully implemented by the native-code compiler.

`exception Sys_error of string`

Exception raised by the input/output functions to report an operating system error. The string is meant to give some information to the programmer; you must not pattern match on the string literal because it may change in future versions (use Sys_error _ instead).

Exception raised by input functions to signal that the end of file has been reached.

`exception Division_by_zero`

Exception raised by integer division and remainder operations when their second argument is zero.

A special case of Sys_error raised when no I/O is possible on a non-blocking I/O channel.

`exception Undefined_recursive_module of string * int * int`

Exception raised when an ill-founded recursive module definition is evaluated. The arguments are the location of the definition in the source code (file name, line number, column number).

## Comparisons

`val (==) : 'a -> 'a -> bool`

`e1 == e2`

tests for physical equality of `e1`

and `e2`

. On mutable types such as references, arrays, byte sequences, records with mutable fields and objects with mutable instance variables, `e1 == e2`

is true if and only if physical modification of `e1`

also affects `e2`

. On non-mutable types, the behavior of `( == )`

is implementation-dependent; however, it is guaranteed that `e1 == e2`

implies `compare e1 e2 = 0`

. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (!=) : 'a -> 'a -> bool`

Negation of `Stdlib.(==)`

. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

## Boolean operations

`val (&&) : bool -> bool -> bool`

The boolean 'and'. Evaluation is sequential, left-to-right: in `e1 && e2`

, `e1`

is evaluated first, and if it returns `false`

, `e2`

is not evaluated at all. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (&) : bool -> bool -> bool`

`val (||) : bool -> bool -> bool`

The boolean 'or'. Evaluation is sequential, left-to-right: in `e1 || e2`

, `e1`

is evaluated first, and if it returns `true`

, `e2`

is not evaluated at all. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val or : bool -> bool -> bool`

## Debugging

`__LOC__`

returns the location at which this expression appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler, with the standard error format of OCaml: "File %S, line %d, characters %d-%d".

`__FILE__`

returns the name of the file currently being parsed by the compiler.

`__LINE__`

returns the line number at which this expression appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler.

`__MODULE__`

returns the module name of the file being parsed by the compiler.

`val __POS__ : string * int * int * int`

`__POS__`

returns a tuple `(file,lnum,cnum,enum)`

, corresponding to the location at which this expression appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler. `file`

is the current filename, `lnum`

the line number, `cnum`

the character position in the line and `enum`

the last character position in the line.

`val __FUNCTION__ : string`

`__FUNCTION__`

returns the name of the current function or method, including any enclosing modules or classes.

`val __LOC_OF__ : 'a -> string * 'a`

`__LOC_OF__ expr`

returns a pair `(loc, expr)`

where `loc`

is the location of `expr`

in the file currently being parsed by the compiler, with the standard error format of OCaml: "File %S, line %d, characters %d-%d".

`val __LINE_OF__ : 'a -> int * 'a`

`__LINE_OF__ expr`

returns a pair `(line, expr)`

, where `line`

is the line number at which the expression `expr`

appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler.

`val __POS_OF__ : 'a -> (string * int * int * int) * 'a`

`__POS_OF__ expr`

returns a pair `(loc,expr)`

, where `loc`

is a tuple `(file,lnum,cnum,enum)`

corresponding to the location at which the expression `expr`

appears in the file currently being parsed by the compiler. `file`

is the current filename, `lnum`

the line number, `cnum`

the character position in the line and `enum`

the last character position in the line.

## Composition operators

`val (|>) : 'a -> ('a -> 'b) -> 'b`

Reverse-application operator: `x |> f |> g`

is exactly equivalent to `g (f (x))`

. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (@@) : ('a -> 'b) -> 'a -> 'b`

Application operator: `g @@ f @@ x`

is exactly equivalent to `g (f (x))`

. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

## Integer arithmetic

Integers are `Sys.int_size`

bits wide. All operations are taken modulo 2^{Sys.int_size}. They do not fail on overflow.

Unary negation. You can also write `- e`

instead of `~- e`

. Unary operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

Unary addition. You can also write `+ e`

instead of `~+ e`

. Unary operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (+) : int -> int -> int`

Integer addition. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (-) : int -> int -> int`

Integer subtraction. Left-associative operator, , see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (*) : int -> int -> int`

Integer multiplication. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (/) : int -> int -> int`

Integer division. Integer division rounds the real quotient of its arguments towards zero. More precisely, if `x >= 0`

and `y > 0`

, `x / y`

is the greatest integer less than or equal to the real quotient of `x`

by `y`

. Moreover, `(- x) / y = x / (- y) = - (x / y)`

. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (mod) : int -> int -> int`

Integer remainder. If `y`

is not zero, the result of `x mod y`

satisfies the following properties: `x = (x / y) * y + x mod y`

and `abs(x mod y) <= abs(y) - 1`

. If `y = 0`

, `x mod y`

raises `Division_by_zero`

. Note that `x mod y`

is negative only if `x < 0`

. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

Return the absolute value of the argument. Note that this may be negative if the argument is `min_int`

.

The greatest representable integer.

The smallest representable integer.

### Bitwise operations

`val (land) : int -> int -> int`

Bitwise logical and. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (lor) : int -> int -> int`

Bitwise logical or. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (lxor) : int -> int -> int`

Bitwise logical exclusive or. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

Bitwise logical negation.

`val (lsl) : int -> int -> int`

`n lsl m`

shifts `n`

to the left by `m`

bits. The result is unspecified if `m < 0`

or `m > Sys.int_size`

. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (lsr) : int -> int -> int`

`n lsr m`

shifts `n`

to the right by `m`

bits. This is a logical shift: zeroes are inserted regardless of the sign of `n`

. The result is unspecified if `m < 0`

or `m > Sys.int_size`

. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (asr) : int -> int -> int`

`n asr m`

shifts `n`

to the right by `m`

bits. This is an arithmetic shift: the sign bit of `n`

is replicated. The result is unspecified if `m < 0`

or `m > Sys.int_size`

. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

## Floating-point arithmetic

OCaml's floating-point numbers follow the IEEE 754 standard, using double precision (64 bits) numbers. Floating-point operations never raise an exception on overflow, underflow, division by zero, etc. Instead, special IEEE numbers are returned as appropriate, such as `infinity`

for `1.0 /. 0.0`

, `neg_infinity`

for `-1.0 /. 0.0`

, and `nan`

('not a number') for `0.0 /. 0.0`

. These special numbers then propagate through floating-point computations as expected: for instance, `1.0 /. infinity`

is `0.0`

, basic arithmetic operations (`+.`

, `-.`

, `*.`

, `/.`

) with `nan`

as an argument return `nan`

, ...

`val (~-.) : float -> float`

Unary negation. You can also write `-. e`

instead of `~-. e`

. Unary operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (~+.) : float -> float`

Unary addition. You can also write `+. e`

instead of `~+. e`

. Unary operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (+.) : float -> float -> float`

Floating-point addition. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (-.) : float -> float -> float`

Floating-point subtraction. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (*.) : float -> float -> float`

Floating-point multiplication. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (/.) : float -> float -> float`

Floating-point division. Left-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (**) : float -> float -> float`

Exponentiation. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val sqrt : float -> float`

`val log10 : float -> float`

`val expm1 : float -> float`

`expm1 x`

computes `exp x -. 1.0`

, giving numerically-accurate results even if `x`

is close to `0.0`

.

`val log1p : float -> float`

`log1p x`

computes `log(1.0 +. x)`

(natural logarithm), giving numerically-accurate results even if `x`

is close to `0.0`

.

Cosine. Argument is in radians.

Sine. Argument is in radians.

Tangent. Argument is in radians.

`val acos : float -> float`

Arc cosine. The argument must fall within the range `[-1.0, 1.0]`

. Result is in radians and is between `0.0`

and `pi`

.

`val asin : float -> float`

Arc sine. The argument must fall within the range `[-1.0, 1.0]`

. Result is in radians and is between `-pi/2`

and `pi/2`

.

`val atan : float -> float`

Arc tangent. Result is in radians and is between `-pi/2`

and `pi/2`

.

`val atan2 : float -> float -> float`

`atan2 y x`

returns the arc tangent of `y /. x`

. The signs of `x`

and `y`

are used to determine the quadrant of the result. Result is in radians and is between `-pi`

and `pi`

.

`val hypot : float -> float -> float`

`hypot x y`

returns `sqrt(x *. x + y *. y)`

, that is, the length of the hypotenuse of a right-angled triangle with sides of length `x`

and `y`

, or, equivalently, the distance of the point `(x,y)`

to origin. If one of `x`

or `y`

is infinite, returns `infinity`

even if the other is `nan`

.

`val cosh : float -> float`

Hyperbolic cosine. Argument is in radians.

`val sinh : float -> float`

Hyperbolic sine. Argument is in radians.

`val tanh : float -> float`

Hyperbolic tangent. Argument is in radians.

`val acosh : float -> float`

Hyperbolic arc cosine. The argument must fall within the range `[1.0, inf]`

. Result is in radians and is between `0.0`

and `inf`

.

`val asinh : float -> float`

Hyperbolic arc sine. The argument and result range over the entire real line. Result is in radians.

`val atanh : float -> float`

Hyperbolic arc tangent. The argument must fall within the range `[-1.0, 1.0]`

. Result is in radians and ranges over the entire real line.

`val ceil : float -> float`

Round above to an integer value. `ceil f`

returns the least integer value greater than or equal to `f`

. The result is returned as a float.

`val floor : float -> float`

Round below to an integer value. `floor f`

returns the greatest integer value less than or equal to `f`

. The result is returned as a float.

`val abs_float : float -> float`

`abs_float f`

returns the absolute value of `f`

.

`val copysign : float -> float -> float`

`copysign x y`

returns a float whose absolute value is that of `x`

and whose sign is that of `y`

. If `x`

is `nan`

, returns `nan`

. If `y`

is `nan`

, returns either `x`

or `-. x`

, but it is not specified which.

`val mod_float : float -> float -> float`

`mod_float a b`

returns the remainder of `a`

with respect to `b`

. The returned value is `a -. n *. b`

, where `n`

is the quotient `a /. b`

rounded towards zero to an integer.

`val frexp : float -> float * int`

`frexp f`

returns the pair of the significant and the exponent of `f`

. When `f`

is zero, the significant `x`

and the exponent `n`

of `f`

are equal to zero. When `f`

is non-zero, they are defined by `f = x *. 2 ** n`

and `0.5 <= x < 1.0`

.

`val ldexp : float -> int -> float`

`ldexp x n`

returns `x *. 2 ** n`

.

`val modf : float -> float * float`

`modf f`

returns the pair of the fractional and integral part of `f`

.

`val float_of_int : int -> float`

Convert an integer to floating-point.

`val truncate : float -> int`

`val int_of_float : float -> int`

Truncate the given floating-point number to an integer. The result is unspecified if the argument is `nan`

or falls outside the range of representable integers.

A special floating-point value denoting the result of an undefined operation such as `0.0 /. 0.0`

. Stands for 'not a number'. Any floating-point operation with `nan`

as argument returns `nan`

as result. As for floating-point comparisons, `=`

, `<`

, `<=`

, `>`

and `>=`

return `false`

and `<>`

returns `true`

if one or both of their arguments is `nan`

.

The largest positive finite value of type `float`

.

The smallest positive, non-zero, non-denormalized value of type `float`

.

`val epsilon_float : float`

The difference between `1.0`

and the smallest exactly representable floating-point number greater than `1.0`

.

`type fpclass = `

`| FP_normal`

Normal number, none of the below

`| FP_subnormal`

Number very close to 0.0, has reduced precision

`| FP_zero`

`| FP_infinite`

Number is positive or negative infinity

`| FP_nan`

Not a number: result of an undefined operation

`val classify_float : float -> fpclass`

Return the class of the given floating-point number: normal, subnormal, zero, infinite, or not a number.

## String operations

More string operations are provided in module `String`

.

`val (^) : string -> string -> string`

String concatenation. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

## Character operations

More character operations are provided in module `Char`

.

`val int_of_char : char -> int`

Return the ASCII code of the argument.

`val char_of_int : int -> char`

Return the character with the given ASCII code.

## Unit operations

Discard the value of its argument and return `()`

. For instance, `ignore(f x)`

discards the result of the side-effecting function `f`

. It is equivalent to `f x; ()`

, except that the latter may generate a compiler warning; writing `ignore(f x)`

instead avoids the warning.

## String conversion functions

`val string_of_bool : bool -> string`

Return the string representation of a boolean. As the returned values may be shared, the user should not modify them directly.

`val bool_of_string_opt : string -> bool option`

Convert the given string to a boolean.

Return `None`

if the string is not `"true"`

or `"false"`

.

`val bool_of_string : string -> bool`

`val string_of_int : int -> string`

Return the string representation of an integer, in decimal.

`val int_of_string_opt : string -> int option`

Convert the given string to an integer. The string is read in decimal (by default, or if the string begins with `0u`

), in hexadecimal (if it begins with `0x`

or `0X`

), in octal (if it begins with `0o`

or `0O`

), or in binary (if it begins with `0b`

or `0B`

).

The `0u`

prefix reads the input as an unsigned integer in the range `[0, 2*max_int+1]`

. If the input exceeds `max_int`

it is converted to the signed integer `min_int + input - max_int - 1`

.

The `_`

(underscore) character can appear anywhere in the string and is ignored.

Return `None`

if the given string is not a valid representation of an integer, or if the integer represented exceeds the range of integers representable in type `int`

.

`val int_of_string : string -> int`

`val string_of_float : float -> string`

Return a string representation of a floating-point number.

This conversion can involve a loss of precision. For greater control over the manner in which the number is printed, see `Printf`

.

`val float_of_string_opt : string -> float option`

Convert the given string to a float. The string is read in decimal (by default) or in hexadecimal (marked by `0x`

or `0X`

).

The format of decimal floating-point numbers is ` [-] dd.ddd (e|E) [+|-] dd `

, where `d`

stands for a decimal digit.

The format of hexadecimal floating-point numbers is ` [-] 0(x|X) hh.hhh (p|P) [+|-] dd `

, where `h`

stands for an hexadecimal digit and `d`

for a decimal digit.

In both cases, at least one of the integer and fractional parts must be given; the exponent part is optional.

The `_`

(underscore) character can appear anywhere in the string and is ignored.

Depending on the execution platforms, other representations of floating-point numbers can be accepted, but should not be relied upon.

Return `None`

if the given string is not a valid representation of a float.

`val float_of_string : string -> float`

## Pair operations

`val fst : ('a * 'b) -> 'a`

Return the first component of a pair.

`val snd : ('a * 'b) -> 'b`

Return the second component of a pair.

## List operations

More list operations are provided in module `List`

.

`val (@) : 'a list -> 'a list -> 'a list`

List concatenation. Not tail-recursive (length of the first argument). Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

Note: all input/output functions can raise `Sys_error`

when the system calls they invoke fail.

The type of input channel.

The type of output channel.

The standard input for the process.

The standard output for the process.

The standard error output for the process.

### Output functions on standard output

`val print_char : char -> unit`

Print a character on standard output.

`val print_string : string -> unit`

Print a string on standard output.

`val print_bytes : bytes -> unit`

Print a byte sequence on standard output.

`val print_int : int -> unit`

Print an integer, in decimal, on standard output.

`val print_float : float -> unit`

Print a floating-point number, in decimal, on standard output.

The conversion of the number to a string uses `string_of_float`

and can involve a loss of precision.

`val print_endline : string -> unit`

Print a string, followed by a newline character, on standard output and flush standard output.

`val print_newline : unit -> unit`

Print a newline character on standard output, and flush standard output. This can be used to simulate line buffering of standard output.

### Output functions on standard error

`val prerr_char : char -> unit`

Print a character on standard error.

`val prerr_string : string -> unit`

Print a string on standard error.

`val prerr_bytes : bytes -> unit`

Print a byte sequence on standard error.

`val prerr_int : int -> unit`

Print an integer, in decimal, on standard error.

`val prerr_float : float -> unit`

Print a floating-point number, in decimal, on standard error.

The conversion of the number to a string uses `string_of_float`

and can involve a loss of precision.

`val prerr_endline : string -> unit`

Print a string, followed by a newline character on standard error and flush standard error.

`val prerr_newline : unit -> unit`

Print a newline character on standard error, and flush standard error.

`val read_line : unit -> string`

Flush standard output, then read characters from standard input until a newline character is encountered.

Return the string of all characters read, without the newline character at the end.

`val read_int_opt : unit -> int option`

Flush standard output, then read one line from standard input and convert it to an integer.

Return `None`

if the line read is not a valid representation of an integer.

`val read_int : unit -> int`

`val read_float_opt : unit -> float option`

Flush standard output, then read one line from standard input and convert it to a floating-point number.

Return `None`

if the line read is not a valid representation of a floating-point number.

`val read_float : unit -> float`

### General output functions

`type open_flag = `

`| Open_rdonly`

`| Open_wronly`

`| Open_append`

open for appending: always write at end of file.

`| Open_creat`

create the file if it does not exist.

`| Open_trunc`

empty the file if it already exists.

`| Open_excl`

fail if Open_creat and the file already exists.

`| Open_binary`

open in binary mode (no conversion).

`| Open_text`

open in text mode (may perform conversions).

`| Open_nonblock`

open in non-blocking mode.

Open the named file for writing, and return a new output channel on that file, positioned at the beginning of the file. The file is truncated to zero length if it already exists. It is created if it does not already exists.

Same as `Stdlib.open_out`

, but the file is opened in binary mode, so that no translation takes place during writes. On operating systems that do not distinguish between text mode and binary mode, this function behaves like `Stdlib.open_out`

.

`open_out_gen mode perm filename`

opens the named file for writing, as described above. The extra argument `mode`

specifies the opening mode. The extra argument `perm`

specifies the file permissions, in case the file must be created. `Stdlib.open_out`

and `Stdlib.open_out_bin`

are special cases of this function.

Flush the buffer associated with the given output channel, performing all pending writes on that channel. Interactive programs must be careful about flushing standard output and standard error at the right time.

`val flush_all : unit -> unit`

Flush all open output channels; ignore errors.

Write the character on the given output channel.

Write the string on the given output channel.

Write the byte sequence on the given output channel.

`val output : out_channel -> bytes -> int -> int -> unit`

`output oc buf pos len`

writes `len`

characters from byte sequence `buf`

, starting at offset `pos`

, to the given output channel `oc`

.

`val output_substring : out_channel -> string -> int -> int -> unit`

Same as `output`

but take a string as argument instead of a byte sequence.

Write one 8-bit integer (as the single character with that code) on the given output channel. The given integer is taken modulo 256.

Write one integer in binary format (4 bytes, big-endian) on the given output channel. The given integer is taken modulo 2^{32}. The only reliable way to read it back is through the `Stdlib.input_binary_int`

function. The format is compatible across all machines for a given version of OCaml.

Write the representation of a structured value of any type to a channel. Circularities and sharing inside the value are detected and preserved. The object can be read back, by the function `Stdlib.input_value`

. See the description of module `Marshal`

for more information. `Stdlib.output_value`

is equivalent to `Marshal.to_channel`

with an empty list of flags.

`seek_out chan pos`

sets the current writing position to `pos`

for channel `chan`

. This works only for regular files. On files of other kinds (such as terminals, pipes and sockets), the behavior is unspecified.

Return the current writing position for the given channel. Does not work on channels opened with the `Open_append`

flag (returns unspecified results). For files opened in text mode under Windows, the returned position is approximate (owing to end-of-line conversion); in particular, saving the current position with `pos_out`

, then going back to this position using `seek_out`

will not work. For this programming idiom to work reliably and portably, the file must be opened in binary mode.

Return the size (number of characters) of the regular file on which the given channel is opened. If the channel is opened on a file that is not a regular file, the result is meaningless.

Close the given channel, flushing all buffered write operations. Output functions raise a `Sys_error`

exception when they are applied to a closed output channel, except `close_out`

and `flush`

, which do nothing when applied to an already closed channel. Note that `close_out`

may raise `Sys_error`

if the operating system signals an error when flushing or closing.

Same as `close_out`

, but ignore all errors.

`set_binary_mode_out oc true`

sets the channel `oc`

to binary mode: no translations take place during output. `set_binary_mode_out oc false`

sets the channel `oc`

to text mode: depending on the operating system, some translations may take place during output. For instance, under Windows, end-of-lines will be translated from `\n`

to `\r\n`

. This function has no effect under operating systems that do not distinguish between text mode and binary mode.

Open the named file for reading, and return a new input channel on that file, positioned at the beginning of the file.

Same as `Stdlib.open_in`

, but the file is opened in binary mode, so that no translation takes place during reads. On operating systems that do not distinguish between text mode and binary mode, this function behaves like `Stdlib.open_in`

.

`open_in_gen mode perm filename`

opens the named file for reading, as described above. The extra arguments `mode`

and `perm`

specify the opening mode and file permissions. `Stdlib.open_in`

and `Stdlib.open_in_bin`

are special cases of this function.

Read one character from the given input channel.

Read characters from the given input channel, until a newline character is encountered. Return the string of all characters read, without the newline character at the end.

`input ic buf pos len`

reads up to `len`

characters from the given channel `ic`

, storing them in byte sequence `buf`

, starting at character number `pos`

. It returns the actual number of characters read, between 0 and `len`

(inclusive). A return value of 0 means that the end of file was reached. A return value between 0 and `len`

exclusive means that not all requested `len`

characters were read, either because no more characters were available at that time, or because the implementation found it convenient to do a partial read; `input`

must be called again to read the remaining characters, if desired. (See also `Stdlib.really_input`

for reading exactly `len`

characters.) Exception `Invalid_argument "input"`

is raised if `pos`

and `len`

do not designate a valid range of `buf`

.

`really_input ic buf pos len`

reads `len`

characters from channel `ic`

, storing them in byte sequence `buf`

, starting at character number `pos`

.

`really_input_string ic len`

reads `len`

characters from channel `ic`

and returns them in a new string.

Read an integer encoded in binary format (4 bytes, big-endian) from the given input channel. See `Stdlib.output_binary_int`

.

Read the representation of a structured value, as produced by `Stdlib.output_value`

, and return the corresponding value. This function is identical to `Marshal.from_channel`

; see the description of module `Marshal`

for more information, in particular concerning the lack of type safety.

`seek_in chan pos`

sets the current reading position to `pos`

for channel `chan`

. This works only for regular files. On files of other kinds, the behavior is unspecified.

Return the current reading position for the given channel. For files opened in text mode under Windows, the returned position is approximate (owing to end-of-line conversion); in particular, saving the current position with `pos_in`

, then going back to this position using `seek_in`

will not work. For this programming idiom to work reliably and portably, the file must be opened in binary mode.

Return the size (number of characters) of the regular file on which the given channel is opened. If the channel is opened on a file that is not a regular file, the result is meaningless. The returned size does not take into account the end-of-line translations that can be performed when reading from a channel opened in text mode.

Close the given channel. Input functions raise a `Sys_error`

exception when they are applied to a closed input channel, except `close_in`

, which does nothing when applied to an already closed channel.

Same as `close_in`

, but ignore all errors.

`val set_binary_mode_in : in_channel -> bool -> unit`

`set_binary_mode_in ic true`

sets the channel `ic`

to binary mode: no translations take place during input. `set_binary_mode_out ic false`

sets the channel `ic`

to text mode: depending on the operating system, some translations may take place during input. For instance, under Windows, end-of-lines will be translated from `\r\n`

to `\n`

. This function has no effect under operating systems that do not distinguish between text mode and binary mode.

### Operations on large files

Operations on large files. This sub-module provides 64-bit variants of the channel functions that manipulate file positions and file sizes. By representing positions and sizes by 64-bit integers (type `int64`

) instead of regular integers (type `int`

), these alternate functions allow operating on files whose sizes are greater than `max_int`

.

## References

`type 'a ref = {`

`mutable contents : 'a;`

`}`

The type of references (mutable indirection cells) containing a value of type `'a`

.

Return a fresh reference containing the given value.

`!r`

returns the current contents of reference `r`

. Equivalent to `fun r -> r.contents`

. Unary operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val (:=) : 'a ref -> 'a -> unit`

`r := a`

stores the value of `a`

in reference `r`

. Equivalent to `fun r v -> r.contents <- v`

. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

`val incr : int ref -> unit`

Increment the integer contained in the given reference. Equivalent to `fun r -> r := succ !r`

.

`val decr : int ref -> unit`

Decrement the integer contained in the given reference. Equivalent to `fun r -> r := pred !r`

.

## Result type

`type ('a, 'b) result = `

`| Ok of 'a`

`| Error of 'b`

Format strings are character strings with special lexical conventions that defines the functionality of formatted input/output functions. Format strings are used to read data with formatted input functions from module `Scanf`

and to print data with formatted output functions from modules `Printf`

and `Format`

.

Format strings are made of three kinds of entities:

*conversions specifications*, introduced by the special character `'%'`

followed by one or more characters specifying what kind of argument to read or print,*formatting indications*, introduced by the special character `'@'`

followed by one or more characters specifying how to read or print the argument,*plain characters* that are regular characters with usual lexical conventions. Plain characters specify string literals to be read in the input or printed in the output.

There is an additional lexical rule to escape the special characters `'%'`

and `'@'`

in format strings: if a special character follows a `'%'`

character, it is treated as a plain character. In other words, `"%%"`

is considered as a plain `'%'`

and `"%@"`

as a plain `'@'`

.

For more information about conversion specifications and formatting indications available, read the documentation of modules `Scanf`

, `Printf`

and `Format`

.

Format strings have a general and highly polymorphic type `('a, 'b, 'c, 'd, 'e, 'f) format6`

. The two simplified types, `format`

and `format4`

below are included for backward compatibility with earlier releases of OCaml.

The meaning of format string type parameters is as follows:

`'a`

is the type of the parameters of the format for formatted output functions (`printf`

-style functions); `'a`

is the type of the values read by the format for formatted input functions (`scanf`

-style functions).

`'b`

is the type of input source for formatted input functions and the type of output target for formatted output functions. For `printf`

-style functions from module `Printf`

, `'b`

is typically `out_channel`

; for `printf`

-style functions from module `Format`

, `'b`

is typically `Format.formatter`

; for `scanf`

-style functions from module `Scanf`

, `'b`

is typically `Scanf.Scanning.in_channel`

.

Type argument `'b`

is also the type of the first argument given to user's defined printing functions for `%a`

and `%t`

conversions, and user's defined reading functions for `%r`

conversion.

`'c`

is the type of the result of the `%a`

and `%t`

printing functions, and also the type of the argument transmitted to the first argument of `kprintf`

-style functions or to the `kscanf`

-style functions.

`'d`

is the type of parameters for the `scanf`

-style functions.

`'e`

is the type of the receiver function for the `scanf`

-style functions.

`'f`

is the final result type of a formatted input/output function invocation: for the `printf`

-style functions, it is typically `unit`

; for the `scanf`

-style functions, it is typically the result type of the receiver function.

Converts a format string into a string.

`format_of_string s`

returns a format string read from the string literal `s`

. Note: `format_of_string`

can not convert a string argument that is not a literal. If you need this functionality, use the more general `Scanf.format_from_string`

function.

```
val (^^) :
('a, 'b, 'c, 'd, 'e, 'f) format6 ->
('f, 'b, 'c, 'e, 'g, 'h) format6 ->
('a, 'b, 'c, 'd, 'g, 'h) format6
```

`f1 ^^ f2`

catenates format strings `f1`

and `f2`

. The result is a format string that behaves as the concatenation of format strings `f1`

and `f2`

: in case of formatted output, it accepts arguments from `f1`

, then arguments from `f2`

; in case of formatted input, it returns results from `f1`

, then results from `f2`

. Right-associative operator, see `Ocaml_operators`

for more information.

## Program termination

Terminate the process, returning the given status code to the operating system: usually 0 to indicate no errors, and a small positive integer to indicate failure. All open output channels are flushed with `flush_all`

. An implicit `exit 0`

is performed each time a program terminates normally. An implicit `exit 2`

is performed if the program terminates early because of an uncaught exception.

`val at_exit : (unit -> unit) -> unit`

Register the given function to be called at program termination time. The functions registered with `at_exit`

will be called when the program does any of the following:

- executes
`Stdlib.exit`

- terminates, either normally or because of an uncaught exception
- executes the C function
`caml_shutdown`

. The functions are called in 'last in, first out' order: the function most recently added with `at_exit`

is called first.

## Standard library modules

Parsing of command line arguments.

`module Array : sig ... end`

This module provides a purely sequential implementation of the concurrent atomic references provided by the Multicore OCaml standard library:

Large, multi-dimensional, numerical arrays.

`module Bool : sig ... end`

`module Bytes : sig ... end`

Byte sequence operations.

Byte sequence operations.

Registering OCaml values with the C runtime.

`module Char : sig ... end`

Ephemerons and weak hash tables.

Operations on file names.

`module Float : sig ... end`

Floating-point arithmetic.

Memory management control and statistics; finalised values.

Hash tables and hash functions.

`module Int32 : sig ... end`

`module Int64 : sig ... end`

`module Lazy : sig ... end`

The run-time library for lexers generated by `ocamllex`

.

Association tables over ordered types.

Marshaling of data structures.

Processor-native integers.

Operations on internal representations of values.

The run-time library for parsers generated by `ocamlyacc`

.

Facilities for printing exceptions and inspecting current call stack.

Formatted output functions.

`module Queue : sig ... end`

First-in first-out queues.

Pseudo-random number generators (PRNG).

`module Scanf : sig ... end`

Formatted input functions.

`module Stack : sig ... end`

Last-in first-out stacks.

`module Uchar : sig ... end`

`module Unit : sig ... end`

`module Weak : sig ... end`

Arrays of weak pointers and hash sets of weak pointers.