utop

Universal toplevel for OCaml
README

utop is an improved toplevel (i.e., Read-Eval-Print Loop) for
OCaml. It can run in a terminal or
in Emacs. It supports line editing, history, real-time and context
sensitive completion, colors, and more.

It integrates with the Tuareg and typerex modes in Emacs.

Installation via opam

The easiest and recommended way of installing utop is via
opam:

$ opam install utop

If you want to build it manually, you should install all the
dependencies listed in the next section.

Dependencies

Installation from sources

To build and install utop:

$ make
$ make install

Documentation and manual pages (optional)

To build the documentation (currently broken):

$ make doc

It will then be installed by make install.

Tests (optional)

To build and execute tests (currently broken):

$ make test

Usage

To use utop, simply run:

$ utop

utop display a bar after the prompt which is used to show possible
completions in real-time. You can navigate in it using M-left and
M-right, and select one completion using M-tab. The M denotes
the meta key, which is Alt most of the time.

Customization

Colors

To add colors to utop, copy one of the files utoprc-dark or
utoprc-light to ~/.utoprc. utoprc-dark is for terminals with
dark colors (such as white on black) and utoprc-light is for
terminals with light colors (such as black on white).

Prompt

You can customize the prompt of utop by setting the reference
UTop.prompt.

Key bindings

Key bindings in the terminal can be changed by writing a
~/.lambda-term-inputrc file. For example:

[read-line]
C-left: complete-bar-prev
C-right: complete-bar-next
C-down: complete-bar

If manual pages are correctly installed you can see a description of
this file by executing:

$ man 5 lambda-term-inputrc

UTop API

UTop exposes several more settings through its API; see
documentation.

Integration with emacs

Main setup

To use utop in emacs, first you need to make sure emacs can find the
command utop and the file utop.el. utop.el is available through
melpa, so M-x package-install RET utop RET
should do.

If this doesn't work and you installed utop via opam, you can add this
to your ~/.emacs:

;; Add the opam lisp dir to the emacs load path
(add-to-list
 'load-path
 (replace-regexp-in-string
  "\n" "/share/emacs/site-lisp"
  (shell-command-to-string "opam config var prefix")))

;; Automatically load utop.el
(autoload 'utop "utop" "Toplevel for OCaml" t)

In any case, if you installed utop via opam you should add this to
your ~/.emacs:

;; Use the opam installed utop
(setq utop-command "opam config exec -- utop -emacs")

This was tested with opam 1.2. For older versions of opam, you can
copy&paste this to your ~/.emacs:

;; Setup environment variables using opam
(dolist (var (car (read-from-string (shell-command-to-string "opam config env --sexp"))))
  (setenv (car var) (cadr var)))

;; Update the emacs path
(setq exec-path (append (parse-colon-path (getenv "PATH"))
                        (list exec-directory)))

;; Update the emacs load path
(add-to-list 'load-path (expand-file-name "../../share/emacs/site-lisp"
                                          (getenv "OCAML_TOPLEVEL_PATH")))

;; Automatically load utop.el
(autoload 'utop "utop" "Toplevel for OCaml" t)

Usage

Then you can execute utop inside emacs with: M-x utop.

utop also ships with a minor mode that has the following key-bindings

| key-binding | function | Description |
|-------------|-------------------|------------------------------|
| C-c C-s | utop | Start a utop buffer |
| C-x C-e | utop-eval-phrase | Evaluate the current phrase |
| C-x C-r | utop-eval-region | Evaluate the selected region |
| C-c C-b | utop-eval-buffer | Evaluate the current buffer |
| C-c C-k | utop-kill | Kill a running utop process |

You can enable the minor mode using M-x utop-minor-mode, or you can
have it enabled by default with the following configuration:

(autoload 'utop-minor-mode "utop" "Minor mode for utop" t)
(add-hook 'tuareg-mode-hook 'utop-minor-mode)

If you plan to use utop with another major-mode than tuareg, replace
tuareg-mode-hook by the appropriate hook. The utop minor mode will
work out of the box with these modes: tuareg-mode, caml-mode and
typerex-mode. For other modes you will need to set the following
three variables:

  • utop-skip-blank-and-comments

  • utop-skip-to-end-of-phrase

  • utop-discover-phrase

You can also complete text in a buffer using the environment of the
toplevel. For that bind the function utop-edit-complete to the key
you want.

Common error

If you get this error when running utop in a terminal or in emacs this
means that the environment variable CAML_LD_LIBRARY_PATH is not set
correctly:

Fatal error: cannot load shared library dlllwt-unix_stubs
Reason: dlopen(dlllwt-unix_stubs.so, 138): image not found

It shall point to the directory stublibs inside your ocaml installation.

Creating a custom utop-enabled toplevel

With jbuilder

The recommended way to build a custom utop toplevel is via
jbuilder. The entry point of the custom utop must call
UTop_main.main. For instance write the following myutop.ml file:

let () = UTop_main.main ()

and the following jbuild file:

(executable
 ((name myutop)
  (link_flags (-linkall))
  (libraries (utop))))

then to build the toplevel, run:

$ jbuilder myutop.bc

Note the -linkall in the link flags. By default OCaml doesn't link
unused modules, however for a toplevel you don't know in advance what
the user is going to use so you must link everything.

If you want to include more libraries in your custom utop, simply add
them to the (libraries ...) field.

Additionally, if you want to install this topevel, add the two
following fields to the executable stanza:

  (public_name myutop)
  (modes (byte))

The (modes ...) field is to tell jbuilder to install the byte-code
version of the executable, as currently native toplevels are not fully
suported.

Manually, with ocamlfind

This section describe methods using ocamlfind. These are no longer
tested, so there is no guarantee they still work.

If you want to create a custom toplevel with utop instead of the
classic one you need to link it with utop and its dependencies and
call UTop_main.main in the last linked unit. You also need to pass
the -thread switch when linking the toplevel.

The easiest way to do that is by using ocamlfind:

$ ocamlfind ocamlmktop -o myutop -thread -linkpkg -package utop myutop_main.cmo

Where myutop_main.ml contains:

let () = UTop_main.main ()

You can also use the ocamlc sub-command instead of ocamlmktop, in
this case you need to pass these thee extra arguments:

  • -linkall to be sure all units are linked into the produced toplevel

  • -package compiler-libs.toplevel

  • -predicates create_toploop

With the last option ocamlfind will generate a small ocaml unit,
linked just before myutop_main.cmo, which will register at startup
packages already linked in the toplevel so they are not loaded again
by the #require directive. It does the same with the ocamlmktop
sub-command.

For example:

$ ocamlfind ocamlc -o myutop -thread -linkpkg -linkall -predicates create_toploop \
    -package compiler-libs.toplevel,utop myutop.cmo

Note that if you are not using ocamlfind, you will need to do that
yourself. You have to call Topfind.don't_load with the list of all
packages linked with the toplevel.

A full example using ocamlbuild is provided in the
examples/custom-utop directory.

Install
Published
15 Jul 2018
Sources
utop-2.2.0.tbz
md5=c8e4805883ce27a2ef27b0e4322d6f04
Dependencies
jbuilder
>= "1.0+beta9"
cppo
build & >= "1.1.2"
react
>= "1.0.0"
lambda-term
>= "1.2" & < "2.0"
ocamlfind
>= "1.7.2"
ocaml
>= "4.02.3" & < "4.08.0"
Reverse Dependencies
bap
>= "0.9.3" & < "1.0.0"
bap-std
< "1.4.0" | >= "1.6.0"
reason
= "1.13.0" | >= "1.13.6" & < "3.2.0"
sihl
< "0.1.0"
spectrum
< "0.2.0"